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Under each pose, on the Dao-yin diagram (Tu), was a caption with the name of an animal exercise or the name of the disease that the posture might help cure. Making beneficial exercises interesting and enjoyable has always been a challenge to creative people.A number of the postures depicted in the Dao-yin Tu closely resemble some postures in the Eight Section Brocade Chi Kung (The Wonders of Qigong, 1985, pp. Hua T'o (110-207 CE) is one of the most famous physicians of the Han Dynasty.It is likely that ancient dances, medical theory, military drills and exercises, shamanistic rituals, and Buddhist and Taoist practices were all sources for the specific and formal movement routines of Dao-yin or Chi Kung (Qigong).The ancient terms for these types of Qigong or Chi Kung (energy/Qi/breath training) fitness exercises include: Dao Yin (guiding, breathing and stretching), "guiding and stretching" or "pulling and guiding" exercises; or, Daoqi Yinti (guide the qi and stretch the body); or, Yang Sheng Fa (Longevity Practices, Nourishing Life); or Neidan (Inner Alchemy).The Kung Fu master, Sifu Wong Kiew-Kit, referring to the Shaolin Wahnam style, says "the first eight Lohan Hands are the same as the eight exercises in a famous set of chi kung exercises called the Eight Pieces of Brocade." There are numerous versions, seated and standing, of Bodhiidharma's exercise sets - including the related "Tendon-Changing and Marrow-Washing" (Yi Jin Jing) qigong set with exercises identical to Brocade versions (Li Jingwei, 2014, p. Some versions of the 18 Lohan (Luohan) Hands have up to four levels, and scores of movement forms for qigong and martial purposes.Professor Wang Jiafu has traced the history of Dao-yin fitness exercises, and states "Books and diagrams about daoyin appeared in growing numbers in the Western Jin Dynasty (266-316 AD).In 1973, archeologists in China excavated the tomb of King Ma.
In addition, trade and cultural exchanges between India and China transferred Buddhist theory and practices, Tantra, Yoga, Dao-yin, medicinal herbs, medical techniques, and martial arts training techniques between these civilizations.Many of these health exercise practices continue to this day, and the Eight Treasures are often considered a Wai Dan medical qigong exercise set.The Chinese Health Qigong Association says that "as a traditional Chinese health and fitness Qigong exercise routine, Ba Duan Jin, or Eight Section Exercises, dates back to the Song Dynasty (960-1279)." The scholars Ji Jingwei and Zhu Jianping say, in their book An Illustrated Handbook of Chinese Qigong Forms from the Ancient Texts (2014, p.82), that "The Eight Section Brocade is a set of dynamic exercises for health preservation composed of eight parts.One can also see some movements and postures in the Five Animal Frolics that are comparable to the Eight Treasures.Longevity and fitness instructors, and some doctors, throughout China prescribed specific exercises to help prevent or heal injuries, improve health, or cure various illnesses, along with the other curative methods of traditional Chinese medicine.