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Courtois gave samples to his friends, Charles Bernard Desormes (1777–1838) and Nicolas Clément (1779–1841), to continue research.
He also gave some of the substance to chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778–1850), and to physicist André-Marie Ampère (1775–1836).
At the time of the Napoleonic Wars, saltpeter was in great demand in France.
Saltpeter produced from French nitre beds required sodium carbonate, which could be isolated from seaweed collected on the coasts of Normandy and Brittany.
Iodine occurs in many oxidation states, including iodide (I), and the various periodate anions.
It is the least abundant of the stable halogens, being the sixty-first most abundant element. Iodine deficiency affects about two billion people and is the leading preventable cause of intellectual disabilities.
The interhalogen bond in diiodine is the weakest of all the halogens.
As such, 1% of a sample of gaseous iodine at atmospheric pressure is dissociated into iodine atoms at 575 °C.
Iodine conforms to the prevailing trend, being a shiny black crystalline solid that melts at 114 °C and boils at 183 °C to form a violet gas.To isolate the sodium carbonate, seaweed was burned and the ash washed with water.The remaining waste was destroyed by adding sulfuric acid.Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.The heaviest of the stable halogens, it exists as a lustrous, purple-black metallic solid at standard conditions that sublimes readily to form a violet gas.